Neste módulo de preparação para a prova de inglês para aviação pelo ICAO, vamos analisar os diferentes tipos de eventos de despressurização e olhar para uma amostra de um exame de Inglês para aviação. Se você gostar de nosso material, você poderá marcar uma aula demonstrativa com um dos nossos professores. Divirta-se!
ANAC recognizes three distinct types of decompression events in aircraft:
- Explosive decompression
- Rapid decompression
- Gradual decompression
Explosive decompression occurs at a rate swifter than that at which air can escape from the lungs, typically in less than 0.1 to 0.5 seconds. The risk of lung trauma is very high, as is the danger from any unsecured objects that can become projectiles because of the explosive force, which may be likened to a bomb detonation.
After an explosive decompression within an aircraft, a heavy fog may immediately fill the interior as the relative humidity of cabin air rapidly changes as the air cools and condenses. Military pilots with oxygen masks have to pressure-breathe, whereby the lungs fill with air when relaxed, and effort has to be exerted to expel the air again.
This Aloha Airlines 737 was probably one of the most famous cases of a rapid decompression. Take some time to study this picture and try to describe it in as much detail as possible!
Rapid decompression typically takes more than 0.1 to 0.5 seconds, allowing the lungs to decompress more quickly than the cabin. The risk of lung damage is still present, but significantly reduced compared with explosive decompression.
Slow, or gradual, decompression occurs slowly enough to go unnoticed and might only be detected by instruments. This type of decompression may also come about from a failure to pressurize as an aircraft climbs to altitude. An example of this is the 2005 Helios Airways Flight 522 crash, in which the pilots failed to check the aircraft was pressurising automatically and then to react to the warnings that the aircraft was depressurising, eventually losing consciousness (along with most of the passengers and crew) from hypoxia.
Initial Pilot Actions
In the event of a decompression, the first thing that a pilot must do is to put on his oxygen masks and selection 100% oxygen, the aircraft must immediately begin a descent to an altitude of 14,000 feet or below (if possible, this may not be possible over montainous terrain) and the passengers’ oxygen masks should be deployed and cabin crew should return to their seats.
A dialogue from the ICAO exam
The distress message shall follow the distress call as soon as possible.
The distress message should include as many as possible of the following elements spoken distinctly and, if possible, in the following order:
- the distress signal “MAYDAY”;
- the call sign of the station in distress (once);
- the nature of the distress condition and kind of assistance required (i.e. what has happened);
- the intentions of the person in command;
- the particulars of its position (airspeed, altitude, heading);
- the number of persons on board and injuries (if applicable);
- any other information that may facilitate rescue;
Note that the controller asks the pilot to confirm information in his response. Using standard phraseology, we confirm information by saying “Affirm” (afirmativo) and we negate information by saying “negative” (negativo).
Mais Modulos Para ICAO