a type of excursion where the aircraft is unable to stop before the end of the runway normally due to runway contamination, rainwater, ice, oil, or an excess of rubber from aircraft tires (as was seen in the TAM disaster at Congonhas).
Antoher famous runway over run incident was Air France 358 a flight from Paris, France, to Toronto, Ontario, Canada, using an Airbus A340 airliner, departed Paris without incident at 11:53 UTC 2 August 2005, later touching down on runway 24L at Toronto Pearson International Airport at 20:01 UTC (16:01 EDT). The aircraft failed to stop on the runway, plunged into nearby Etobicoke Creek, and came to rest, bursting into flames, approximately 300 metres past the end of the runway. The Airbus A340-300 had 309 people aboard – 297 passengers (two of them infants, without seats) and 12 crew – all of whom survived, with 12 people sustaining serious injuries. The accident highlighted the role played by highly trained flight attendants during an emergency situation.
Due to poor weather, 540 flights departing and arriving at Pearson were cancelled. Many small and mid-size aircraft due to arrive were diverted to other Canadian airports in Ottawa, London, Hamilton, and Winnipeg. Most of the larger aircraft were diverted to Montreal, Syracuse, New York, and Buffalo, New York. Flights from Vancouver were turned back.
Here is a computer simulation of the final approach and landing of this flight, note that the aircraft touches down almost half way along the runway, at more than 140kts. the reverse thrust is also not immediately deployed!