Esta aula irá ajudá-lo com a escuta e vocabulário para a avaliação de Inglês de aviação da ANAC para pilotos.

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Background

When we are confronted with abnormal situations at the airport and in the airways, we sometimes have to stop using standard phraseology and use plain English to resolve problems.

In this video the tower controller and pilots at JFK are confronted with a snow storm at JFK the day after christmas, a very busy operational day.  Listen to how the radio communications differ from standard phraseology.

When you listen to the audio the first time, try not to read the subtitles (legendas).  Write down the callsigns of each of the aircraft and try to write down any taxi instructions that you can hear.

During the video, the controller closes a runway, which runway does he close?

Vocabulary

  • Blizzard
    Nevasca
  • Plowed
    Arado
  • Swept
    Varrida
  • Brighten Up
    Esclaracer (tempo)
  • Snow Plow
    Arado de Neve
  • De-Ice
    Descongelação

The pilots also use the word drift and they refer to snow drift.  Snow drift is when snow begins to build up in piles and becomes deep.

Thinking about the professionalism of the controller and the pilots, do you think that all of the transmissions were necessary?

Which transmissions can be removed?

The first pilot said that he needed to stop where he was to go and do a wing inspection.  Why do you think that he needed to do that?

DL165 is told that he will probably not be able to take off in the next 10 minutes.  What do you think he will do next?

Icing

One of the major weather hazards to aviation is icing. Icing is the formation of ice on parts of a vehicle. Pilots and controllers need to be aware of the icing process, under what conditions ice will form on an aircraft, the different forms it takes on an aircraft and its effects on the aircraft’s flight characteristics. Icing occurs when an aircraft flies through visible water and the temperature at the point where the moisture strikes the aircraft is 32° F (0° C) or colder. Even though the air temperature around the airplane may be a few degrees warmer than freezing, aerodynamic cooling can occur (due to the rapid movement of the airplane through the air creating a wind chill effect) and lower the temperature of the airplane’s surface thus inducing icing. Supercooled water increases the rate of icing. As a supercooled water droplet hits the airplane’s surface a part of it freezes instantaneously. The manner in which the remaining portion of the water droplet freezes determines whether the ice formation is clear ice, rime ice or mixed ice.

Clear Ice

After the initial impact of supercooled droplets from large raindrops strike the surface, the remaining liquefied portion flows out over the surface and freezes gradually. This freezes as a smooth sheet of sold ice. It is hard and heavy and is difficult to remove.

Rime Ice

Formed from small supercooled droplets when the remaining liquefied portion after initial impact freezes rapidly before the drop has time to spread over the surface. This traps air between the droplets, and gives the ice a white appearance. It is lighter in weight than clear ice. Its formation is irregular and its surface is rough. It is brittle and more easily removed than clear ice.

Mixed Ice

Formed when supercooled water droplets are of various sizes or are intermingled with snow or ice particles. After initial impact, the remaining portion freezes rapidly and forms a mushroom shape on the leading edges of a wing. Ice particles are embedded in clear ice and form a hard and rough-edged mass.

Icing is considered a cumulative hazard as it takes time for the ice to build up on the aircraft and increasingly changes the aircraft’s flight characteristics.

More Listening Exercises